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Prepared by
Leanne Eames B.A. M.A.
Evelin C. Halls, DipFLC

Abhidhamma Class No. 76, 9 December 2003

The Causes of Material Phenomena


uppada = arising instant
thiti = static instant
utu = heat
tejo = heat element
ahara = nutriment, cause, sustenance
oja = nutritive essence

Dr. Mehm Tin Mon writes in "The Essence of Buddha Abhidhamma" (pp. 238 - 240):

There are four causes which produce rupa. They are:
(1) kamma
(2) citta
(3) utu
(4) ahara

(1) Material Phenomena arising from Kamma

There are 25 types of kamma which produce rupa internally in the bodies of beings for their own continuity of material phenomena. The 25 types of kamma comprise 12 akusala cetanas, 8 kamavacara-kusala cetanas and 5 rupavacara-kusala cetanas. These immoral and moral kammas produce rupas in the kama- and the rupa-spheres at every small instant starting from the arising instant of rebirth consciousness till death. The rupa produced by kamma is called kammaja-rupa.

Note that arupavacara kammas do not produce rupas.

(2) Material Phenomena arising from Citta

The cittas that produce rupa number 75, excluding the 10 dvi-panca-vinnana cittas and 4 arupavacara-vipaka cittas. All patisandhi-cittas and the death-consciousness of arahats also do not produce rupa.

Starting from the first bhavanga-citta of the life-continuum till death. The 75 cittas mentioned above produce cittaja-rupa at every arising instant of the respective cittas. The rupa produced by citta is known as cittaja-rupa.

Of the 75 cittas, the 26 appana-javana cittas not only produce cittaja-rupa but also support the four bodily postures -viz., standing, sitting, lying and walking.

The 32 cittas comprising mano-dvaravajjana, 29 kamavacara javanas and 2 abhinnas (supernormal knowledges) produce cittaja-rupa, support the bodily postures and also produce two vi˝˝ati-rupas for bodily postures and vocal actions.

Of the 32 cittas mentioned above, the 13 somanassa javanas also produce smiles and laughters whereas the 2 domanassa javanas, i.e., the 2 dosa-mula cittas, produce moaning and weeping.

Hasituppada and 4 somanassa-maha-kiriya cittas produce smiles in Buddhas and arahats.

Two lobhamula-ditthigata-vipayutta-somanassa cittas and 4 somanassa-maha-kusala cittas produce smiles and laughters in sekha-persons -i.e., sotapanna, sakadagamis and anagamis.

Four lobhamula-somanassa cittas and 4 somanassa-maha-kusala cittas produce smiles and laughters in puthujjanas (worldlings).

Three mano-dhatus, 11 tadalambanas and 5 rupavacara vipaka cittas (totalling 19) produce only ordinary cittaja-rupa.

(3) Material Phenomena arising from Utu

The heat-element, tejo, which comprises both cold and heat and which is present in all rupa-kalapas, on reaching its static stage, produces utuja-rupas and continues producing utuja-rupas at a very small instant both internally and externally.

(4) Material Phenomena arising from Ahara

The nutritive essence, oja, is present in all rupa-kalapas both inside the body (internal) and outside the body (external). The external food, which is eaten, is digested in the stomach and dispersed through blood to all parts of the body. So the internal oja and the external oja meet in every part of the body. The time they meet is called the arising instant (uppada). After this instant, the static instant (thiti) is reached. From this static instant the combination of internal and external ojas starts producing aharaja-rupas and goes on producing them at every small instant until the combination terminates.

Today we will read the Paticca-samuppada-vibhanga Sutta. The citta that arises when you read a sutta is one of the 8 types of maha-kusala citta. (see pp. 36 to 40 in Dr. Mon's book "The Essence of Buddha Abhidhamma").

Maha-kusala citta arise when ordinary worldlings (puthujjanas) and ariyas with the exception of arahats perform meritorious deeds such as dana (alms giving), sila (morality) and bhavana (meditation).

Samyutta Nikaya XII.2
Paticca-samuppada-vibhanga Sutta
Analysis of Dependent Co-arising
Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only.

Dwelling at Savatthi... "Monks, I will describe and analyze dependent co-arising for you.

"And what is dependent co-arising? From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications. From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness. From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-and-form. From name-and-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media. From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact. From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving. From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance. From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming. From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth. From birth as a requisite condition, then aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair come into play. Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress and suffering.

"Now what is aging and death? Whatever aging, decrepitude, brokenness, graying, wrinkling, decline of life-force, weakening of the faculties of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called aging. Whatever deceasing, passing away, breaking up, disappearance, dying, death, completion of time, break up of the aggregates, casting off of the body, interruption in the life faculty of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called death.

"And what is birth? Whatever birth, taking birth, descent, coming-to-be, coming-forth, appearance of aggregates, and acquisition of [sense] media of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called birth.

"And what is becoming? These three are becomings: sensual becoming, form becoming, and formless becoming. This is called becoming.

"And what is clinging/sustenance? These four are clingings: sensuality clinging, view clinging, precept and practice clinging, and doctrine of self clinging. This is called clinging.

"And what is craving? These six are classes of craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for smells, craving for tastes, craving for tactile sensations, craving for ideas. This is called craving.

"And what is feeling? These six are classes of feeling: feeling born from eye-contact, feeling born from ear-contact, feeling born from nose-contact, feeling born from tongue-contact, feeling born from body-contact, feeling born from intellect-contact. This is called feeling.

"And what is contact? These six are classes of contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, intellect-contact. This is called contact.

"And what are the six sense media? These six are sense media: the eye-medium, the ear-medium, the nose-medium, the tongue-medium, the body-medium, the intellect-medium. These are called the six sense media.

"And what is name-and-form? Feeling, perception, intention, contact, and attention: This is called name. The four great elements, and the form dependent on the four great elements: This is called form. This name and this form are called name-and-form.

"And what is consciousness? These six are classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, intellect-consciousness. This is called consciousness.

"And what are fabrications? These three are fabrications: bodily fabrications, verbal fabrications, mental fabrications. These are called fabrications.

"And what is ignorance? Not knowing stress, not knowing the origination of stress, not knowing the cessation of stress, not knowing the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress: This is called ignorance.

"Now from the remainderless fading and cessation of that very ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications. From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness. From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-and-form. From the cessation of name-and-form comes the cessation of the six sense media. From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact. From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling. From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving. From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance. From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming. From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the cessation of birth, then aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair all cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress and suffering."

(from website http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/samyutta/sn12-002.html)

Next week we will study types of rupa.


Dr. Mehm Tin Mon, 1995, "The Essence of Buddha Abhidhamma", publisher Mehm Tay Zar Mon, Yangon

Samyutta Nikaya XII.2, Paticca-samuppada-vibhanga Sutta,
Analysis of Dependent Co-arising, Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, For free distribution only. Revised: Sun 19-Oct-2003
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/samyutta/sn12-002.html, accessed 20 November 2003

Our Ref: LAN 2 I:/abhi076.rtf

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